Globalization and technology has evolved Thomas Friedman's "Flat World" into what I have coined "The New Frontier."  -Angela R. Pashayan

The world is evolving, hold onto your hats! The evolution began with the 2008 Great Recession and continued with the Occupy and Populous movements, individualism, a hegemonic heretic, and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Economically, many industries will close forever - like dinosaurs going extinct, they will Not Be Needed in our future;

  • oil, now selling for .56/gallon

  • gas operated vehicles - only solar or electric

  • paper money - electronic transfers are easier  

  • credit and bank cards - biologics avoid theft

  • teachers - AI simulated professors for increased use of online classes

  • student loans - the rich pay for school and the poor attend online

  • airlines - social distance seating and access to oil-based fuel will be expensive

  • restaurants - social distance seating means increased prices. Food-trucks advantage! 


How does this affect poverty reduction for informal settlements in Kenya? It doesn't - those who lived in abject poverty never enjoyed any of the above. However, poverty and development in the New Frontier must evolve to embrace a digital strategy (USAID Deputy Administrator Bonnie Glick, 2020), coupled with innovative solutions including non-consumption of meat. Here are things I predict will Not Be Needed  in the future of abject poverty reduction:

  • paper money - Kenya has used mobil money since 2007

  • bank cards - biologics are already in use

  • teachers - slum dwellers cannot wait for education to put food on the table

  • micro-loans - slum dwellers are turning to community loans

  • wired electricity - solar is free

  • piped water - NGO's like SHOFCO and JIBU have alternatives

  • toilets - waste collection is an evolving business

  • meat consumption - pandemics via slaughtered animals (corona-bats / ebola-monkey)


My academic research goal: find the best way for self-reliance in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.
I collect data through surveys and interviews and focus groups to analyze the effectiveness of US Foreign Aid, NGO, Civil Society, and Slum Dweller initiatives to reduce poverty. In the field of development, there are three schools of thought;

(1) Traditional Aid through education, job training, free services and food will end poverty 

(2) Social Entrepreneurship across multiple sectors will end poverty 

(3) Public-Private Partnerships will end poverty. 

Contact me for consulting, projects, or collaborative research -



Angela R. Pashayan, BA-Psychology, MA Diplomacy, Ph.D. Political Science (ABD)

Political Science/International Relations - Poverty Reduction



  • Howard University, Washington, D.C. - Ph.D. Int’l Relations/Political Science (in progress).  Member, Golden Key International Honor Society​ 3.9GPA

  • Norwich University, VT - MA Int’l Relations & Diplomacy  / Honors Graduate

  • Richmond College, International-American University - London, England (part of UCLA BA Degree credits). 

  • University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - BA Psychology



  • 2019-20   Just-Julian Research Scholarship - Howard University 2019-20 Academic Year

  • Tuition paid with $2,000 monthly stipend



  • Pashayan, Angela R. “The Participatory Structures of Poverty in Africa,” International NGO Journal. 14, no. 5 (July 2019): 47-51,

  • ​Pashayan, Angela. Stories of a Bhakti Yogi. Oklahoma: Tate Publishing, 2014.Memoire of multi-cultural travel experiences. ISBN-13 9781625635075 


Conference Presentation: ​


Conferences Attended:

2020 as per presentations listed above
2019 SANKALP Festival - Nairobi, Kenya/ Intellecap, Impact Investors, Social Entrepreneurs

2019 AIDF Africa Summit - Nairobi, Kenya/ USAID, UN-Habitat, IOM, NGOs

2019 CSIS Global Development Forum - Washington, DC/ Tony Blair, USAID, Rockefeller Fund.

2019 World Bank Spring Meetings - Washington, DC/ State of African Address and CSO Forum

2018 Atlantic Festival - Washington, DC/ Democracy Today

2018 Wilson Center African Program/ The Role of the Business Sector in Peace-building in Africa 



2018 StartingBloc Fellow/ USC Marshall School of Business & Social Entrepreneurship

2018 Global Peoples Fellow / UN General Assembly online international forum



2010-2019    Nonprofit Programs, Global programs teaching entrepreneurship and wellbeing (        

2013-2019    Ah Haa School of the Arts - Telluride, CO. Programs for youth exploring global cultures through art. 

2013-2014    Maasai Joy Primary School - Arusha, Tanzania. Globalization, Public Speaking, Poetry, Art, Entrepreneurship/Agriculture.

2012-2014    Host/Presenter, UAE three day program on Health, moderator for cross-cultural panel interviews.

2008-2011    FIDM Private College - San Francisco Campus/ Marketing, Merchandising, Global Trends & Sourcing, Public Speaking.


Work Experience:

  • 2019-Current - USAID Intern for the African Union
    International Political Policy Analyst for Africa and the African Union

  • 2019 Internship Social Impact Investing- Former AU Ambassador John Simon,Total Impact Capital

  • 2012-2019 - - Poverty reduction in Kenyan slums: Agriculture, Art, and Entrepreneurship.

  • 2009-2012 - Health Dept. San Francisco, CA. Three-year contract; Stress and Wellbeing. Program development, implementation and communication across five city departments. Management (recruitment, training, and oversight of program instructors).

  • 2009-2012 Boys & Girls Club of America - San Francisco, CA. Leaders of after-school programs in character, leadership, life skills, health, education, and art. Teaching “Kids Crossing Cultures” program, Awarded Best Nationwide Program 2010. Development of curriculum and measurement of skills learned.



2016 - NAACP Meritorious Women of 2016 / Los Angeles Chapter

2015 - Vice President of SIR Academic Scholars, Norwich University, VT

2014 - Leadership Summit + Honors Graduate, Norwich University

2010 - The Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Best Program Nationwide 


Public Service: 

2018 Habitat for Humanity - Home framing, Colorado 

2016 Town of Mountain Village Ethics Commission Board 

2016 Democratic Campaign Fellowship - Colorado



UN Association of America

World Affairs Council      

American Political Science Association

International Studies Association

International Society of Political Psychology

World Bank Civil Society Organization Participant


22 M Street NE #207

Washington, DC 20002


Utumishi Cooperative House

5 fl., Wing B

Mamlaka Rd.

Nairobi  2252-00200


Tel: +1.415.400.9795


© 2019 by  YODInternational